Posts by nitashamanchanda

A parent of two young children, trained as a scientist, and currently a biotech consultant. I’ve spent the past few years exploring innovations in education and am curating a newsletter of “ideas to consider and things to check out” for engaged parents.

How technology can make our kids better learners: MIT Media Lab’s Mitch Resnick on raising digital creators vs. consumers

Instead of making kindergarten like the rest of school, we need to make the rest of school (indeed, the rest of life) more like kindergarten.” — Mitch Resnick

I have Mitch Resnick (or, more specifically, his published work) to thank for sending me down the rabbit hole of innovation in education a few years ago. Mitch Resnick (aka Dr. Mitchel Resnick, LEGO Papert Professor of Learning Research at MIT’s Media Lab) is a legend in the field of technology education; his aptly named “Lifelong Kindergarten” group of researchers are the brains behind Scratch, the free programming language for kids, and Mindstorms, the programmable version of Lego. Their group’s mission is to develop technology for children to help them “grow up as creative thinkers”.

So how exactly does this work? I discuss his vision and his group’s work in the post below — learning about his views has forced me to re-examine some of my own beliefs about technology in education. Would love to hear your thoughts! Do these ideas resonate with you? Is this preaching to the choir? Gave you some food for thought?

Many thanks for reading!

Nitasha

How we can extend Kindergarten-style creative learning to all ages:

In “All I Really Need to Know (About Creative Thinking) I Learned (By Studying How Children Learn) in Kindergarten” Mitch Resnick describes how the kindergarten play approach and materials inspired his group to develop the technological equivalent — tools that allow children to express themselves digitally. I’ve included some highlights of his compelling vision below.

“The traditional kindergarten approach to learning is well-matched to the needs of the current society and should be extended to learners of all ages…. In traditional kindergartens, children are constantly designing, creating, experimenting, and exploring…..The materials vary (finger paint, crayons, bells) and the creations vary (pictures, stories, songs), but the core process is the same.”
Image courtesy: “All I Really Need to Know (About Creative Thinking) I Learned (By Studying How Children Learn) in Kindergarten”, 2007, by Mitchel Resnick
“I think of it as a spiraling process in which children imagine what they want to do, create a project based on their ideas, play with their creations, share their ideas and creations with others, reflect on their experiences — all of which leads them to imagine new ideas and new projects.”
“In reality, the steps in the process are not as distinct or sequential as indicated in the diagram. Imagining, creating, playing, sharing, and reflecting are mixed together in many different ways. But the key elements are always there, in one form or another.”

Look familiar? Mirrors the design thinking approach, but more playful, and the audience in the kindergarten case is usually the creator him/herself or friends, not clients. He also acknowledges some flexibility in the process, a natural part of children’s play (unlike the stricter design-thinking process).

He continues:

“If this learning approach has been so successful in kindergarten, why hasn’t it been applied in other parts of the educational system? One reason, I believe, is a lack of appreciation for the importance of helping young people develop as creative thinkers. Another reason has to do with the availability of appropriate media and technologies. Wooden blocks and finger paint are great for students working on kindergarten projects and learning kindergarten concepts (like number, shape, size, and color). But as students get older, they want and need to work on more advanced projects and learn more advanced concepts.”
“This is where, in my opinion, digital technologies can play a transformational role in education. I believe that digital technologies, if properly designed and supported, can extend the kindergarten approach, so that learners of all ages can continue to learn in the kindergarten style — and, in the process, continue to develop as creative thinkers.”

He then goes on to describe how, inspired by the best kindergarten materials (blocks for building, crayons for drawing, dolls for role-playing, tiles for making geometric patterns), his group designs technological tools that are not overly constrained and allow children to express themselves in different ways. Tools that allow the creation of a diverse range of projects are ideal, allowing a variety of children’s authentic interests and passions to be expressed. In providing such technological tools, his group hopes to realize what they consider the greatest potential of technology in the educational context.

On the True Potential of Computers in Education (from “Rethinking Learning in the Digital Age”)

The following excerpts highlight the broad potential of computers to help children learn — until educators and parents really look beyond the limited view of computers in the classroom as information delivery devices, communication enablers, or classroom aids (however great their potential is in those areas), the large investment in technology will not bear fruit.

“In most places where new technologies are being used in education today, the technologies are used simply to reinforce outmoded approaches to learning.”
“Over the past fifty years, psychologists and educational researchers, building on the pioneering work of Jean Piaget, have come to understand that learning is not a simple matter of information transmission. Teachers cannot simply pour information into the heads of learners; rather, learning is an active process in which people construct new understandings of the world around them through active exploration, experimentation, discussion, and reflection.”
“Of course, computers are wonderful for transmitting and accessing information, but they are, more broadly, a new medium through which people can create and express. If we use computers simply to deliver information to students, we are missing the revolutionary potential of the new technology for transforming learning and education……Research has shown that many of our best learning experiences come when we are engaged in designing and creating things, especially things that are meaningful either to us or others around us.”
“But until we start to think of computers more like finger paint and less like television, computers will not live up to their full potential. Like finger paint (and unlike television), computers can be used for designing and creating things. In addition to accessing Web pages, people can create their own Web pages. In addition to downloading MP3 music files, people can compose their own music. In addition to playing SimCity, people can create their own simulated worlds.”
“Like finger paint, blocks, and beads, computers can also be used as a “material” for making things — and not just by children, but by everyone. Indeed, the computer is the most extraordinary construction material ever invented, enabling people to create anything from music videos to scientific simulations to robotic creatures. Computers can be seen as a universal construction material, greatly expanding what people can create.”

And finally, a word about Digital Fluency (from “Rethinking Learning in the Digital Age”)

On a related note — is there a difference between digital literacy and fluency? And how important is this? He writes:

“….being digitally fluent involves not only knowing how to use technological tools, but also knowing how to construct things of significance with those tools.”
“Today, discussions about the “digital divide” typically focus on differences in access to computers. That will change. As the costs of computing decline, people everywhere will gain better access to digital technologies. But there is a real risk that only a small handful will be able to use the technologies fluently. In short, the “access gap” will shrink, but a serious “fluency gap” could remain.”

As parents and educators, if we want to support a similar cycle of learning and preserve the creative thinking mindset that is natural to kindergartners, it would serve us well to be mindful of this difference between digital access and digital fluency.

The question remains whether this digital fluency can truly be achieved while using tools created by others (e.g. creating web pages using off-the-shelf solutions or creating simulated worlds within Minecraft) or only by learning how to code oneself. And is it that important for ALL children to be able to create in ALL media, including digital? In Part 2, I’ll take a closer look at the ‘teach all kids to code’ movement (crusade?).

In the meantime, I’ll leave you with this reminder from Mitch Resnick from the essay titled “Lifelong Kindergarten”:

“If we want children to develop as creative thinkers, we need to provide them with more opportunities to create.”

— ….both in digital and analog worlds, of course.

NYT article echoes previous reader on diverse books .. and some must-read books

A propos the previous Parent’s reader... the NYT published this yesterday:

Mirrors for My Daughter’s Bookshelf

An excerpt:

“The education professor Rudine Sims Bishop uses the metaphor of windows, sliding glass doors and mirrors to illustrate why diverse literature is so important. Books can be windows into worlds previously unknown to the reader; they open like sliding glass doors to allow the reader inside. But books can also be mirrors. When books reflect back to us our own experiences, when scenes and sentences strike us as so true they are anchors mooring us to the text, it tells readers their lives and experiences are valued. When children do not see themselves in books, the message is just as clear.”

Two more great book lists for your kids (and yourselves):

Children’s Books That Tackle Race and Ethnicity

Standing Together: 50 Mighty Girl Books
Celebrating Diversity and Acceptance

(thanks, Anuja for that second list!)

Two recent favorites of mine (that really should both be required reading):

The brilliant, epic, debut novel by the 26-year old Yaa Gyasi:

and the much-praised, powerful and moving:

Both very fast reads!

As always thanks for reading!

Are our children’s book shelves diverse enough?

Growing up in India, as solidly part of the majority (at least in terms of race and religion), I never fully appreciated the importance of diversity in my book choices or indeed felt the sort of alienation that children’s book author Grace Lin suffered growing up Chinese in a predominantly white American town (which she describes in this wonderful TED talk).

Now living in a multicultural society (with multicultural children!), I can’t ignore the importance of providing diversity in my kids’ reading choices — stories of different races, religions and nationalities, of course, but also of disability and economic status, and eventually, sexuality. It’s also critical to provide stories with diverse heroes where the theme is NOT the issue of diversity (e.g. black characters in a civil rights book).

Even if your children are part of a majority culture, enriching their world view through exposure to different experiences maybe more essential now than ever before. More than fifty years ago, former President of the International Reading Association, Nancy Larrick, wrote an article “The All-White World of Children’s Books” in the Saturday Review, and noted:

“Across the country, …nonwhite children are learning to read and to understand the American way of life in books which either omit them entirely or scarcely mention them. There is no need to elaborate upon the damage — much of it irreparable — to [the child’s] personality. But the impact of all-white books upon white children is probably even worse. Although his light skin makes him one of the world’s minorities, the white child learns from his books that he is the kingfish. There seems little chance of developing the humility so urgently needed for world cooperation.”


My picks for essential reads on this topic:

1. The Uncomfortable Truth About Children’s Books

Attempts to diversify lily-white kid lit have been, well, complicated.

By Dashka Slater in Mother Jones. Sep/Oct 2016.

 

Why read this? A great read which will bring you up to speed with the issue facing the publishing industry (and us, as book buying parents).

A couple of excerpts:

“Within five years, more than half of America’s children and teenagers will have at least one nonwhite parent.”

“Writers and scholars have bemoaned the whiteness of children’s books for decades, but the topic took on new life in 2014, when the influential black author Walter Dean Myers and his son, the author and illustrator Christopher Myers, wrote companion pieces in the New York Times’ Sunday Review asking, “Where are the people of color in children’s books?” A month later, unwittingly twisting the knife, the industry convention BookCon featured an all-white, all-male panel of “superstar” children’s book authors. Novelist Ellen Oh and like-minded literary types responded with a Twitter campaign — #WeNeedDiverseBooks — that spawned more than 100,000 tweets.”

We Need Diverse Books has expanded into a grassroots organization that promotes diversity in children’s books and is a great resource for diverse children’s books of all kinds.


2. #1000BlackGirlBooks Campaign Expands

By Tammy La Gorce in the New York Times. Sep 6, 2016.

Why read this? If you haven’t already heard of the #1000blackgirlbooks campaign started by Marley Dias in 2015 (while in sixth grade after she got “sick of reading about white boys and their dogs”), this NYT article summarizes it nicely.

An excerpt:

“[Marley] also thought it was important for people outside her demographic to get a sense of what it’s like to be a black girl, much the same way she had gotten an inkling of how it feels to be a white boy by reading books like “Old Yeller.”

“We have different stories, different points of view, different issues in the world,” she said. “Other people should be able see that.” ”


3. Five in the Colonies: Enid Blyton’s Sri Lankan Adventures

By Randy Boyagoda in the Paris Review. June 25, 2012

Why read this? My personal favorite (and a must-read for all those who grew up in Britain’s former colonies on a diet of Enid Blyton), this one captures many of our experiences reading Enid Blyton’s adventures of middle-class white English kids while growing up brown in the Indian sub-continent. The Sri Lankan-Canadian author discusses the complicated feelings many writers have toward their own childhood immersion in Blyton’s foreign world and the resulting rejection they felt toward their own childhood selves and surroundings.

For me, part of the escapist enjoyment of these books was the exotic setting where children ran around unsupervised in the countryside eating sweets called humbugs and sandwiches instead of rotis and rice. Besides, most of us (urban Indian kids whose first language was English) had virtually no other choices in children’s books while growing up in the 1980s and 1990s. And the reality was that we found stories set in rural India (such as the brilliant R.K. Narayan’s Malgudi Days) just as exotic as Blyton’s stories set in 1950s England. Still, it’s certainly worth considering whether our own world views were shaped by this childhood immersion into a strange, foreign, white world, and I’d hesitate to let my children read them without some explanation.

An excerpt:

“But because [Blyton’s] success depended upon such patterned writing, she was also accused by librarians, teachers, and academics of relentlessly dulling the imaginations of her young readers, and of unjustly encouraging those who were reading her from abroad to make identifications that race, geography, history, and politics preemptively denied them. This certainly seems to have been the case for the Nigerian novelist Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie; in a 2006 interview with The Times, she explained that her development as a writer was stunted by her early reading: “When I started to write, I was writing Enid Blyton stories, even though I had never been to England. I didn’t think it was possible for people like me to be in books.”

“Intellectually, I sympathize with these postcolonial renderings of Blyton’s invidious effects upon young imaginations, but my own experience isn’t captured by their accounts.”


Finally, it’s encouraging that most schools and libraries have made it a priority to diversify their book shelves. And I sympathize with the challenge of finding high quality children’s books with diverse characters, but given the political climate we find ourselves in, it seems like an effort worth making!

Thanks for reading!


Resources and further reading:

  1. Kitaab World: I just came across this terrific new online source for South Asian books, puzzles and toys, based in the US

2. This NPR story has more on the disconnect between kids books content and the market:

As Demographics Shift, Kids’ Books Stay Stubbornly White

3. The Walter Dean Myers opinion piece in the New York Times

Where Are the People of Color in Children’s Books?

4. From KQED’s Mindshift:

25 Books That Diversify Kids’ Reading Lists This Summer

5. Another great resource for diverse books:

50 Mighty Girl Books Celebrating Diversity and Acceptance

WSJ Children’s Book Critic on “The Great Gift of Reading Aloud”

A great distraction from election trauma – pick up more children’s books! While I waxed on about the importance of reading aloud to kids, children’s books (yes picture books too!) are wonderful for adults too. Maria Popova and Gretchen Rubin are fans – check out their faves.

I missed this article below in my previous post, but it’s a wonderful reminder from the Wall Street Journal’s children’s book critic Meghan Cox Gurdon on the joy of the read aloud tradition and its vulnerability in the face of increased screen time.

Pasting it below in its entirety (minus ads!) because it’s worth a read. Original can be found here.

It was followed by some great comments here. Happy reading!

Nitasha


The Great Gift of Reading Aloud

To curl up with children and a good book has long been one of the great civilizing practices of domestic life, an almost magical entry point to the larger world of literature.

Photo: Robert Neubecker

The first time I read aloud to one of my children, the experience ended in tears. It was a sweltering July afternoon 21 years ago, and my husband and I had, incredibly, just been permitted to leave a Tokyo hospital with our firstborn, a daughter.

Immediately upon entering our apartment, feeling foggy about all but one thing, I carried the infant to the little room we had prepared for her, sat down in the rocking chair that I had painted before her arrival, and began to read aloud from a book of fairy tales.

“Long ago there lived a widower who had one daughter,” I informed the pudding in my arms. “For his second wife, he chose a widow who had two daughters. All three had very jealous natures . . .”

The hot summer sun slanted through the windows. My voice sounded querulous and strange. The child lay oblivious. Was she even listening? Was I supposed to show her the illustrations? With a sudden sense of personal absurdity, I started to bawl. Things quickly improved, but honestly, what kind of a maniac reads “Cinderella” to a newborn?

Reading aloud was probably always going to be important in our family life, but it might never have acquired its tinge of benign extremism without the influence of my friend Lisa Wolfinger, who had started having babies a few years before I did.

It was she who first modeled for me the joyful primacy that reading aloud could command, even in a busy household. She read to her four boys every night, at length and almost without fail. I remember being at a dinner party at her house in Maine when her sons were quite small. During cocktails, she excused herself and disappeared upstairs. She was gone so long that eventually someone asked her husband if anything was amiss. “Oh, no,” he said. “She’s just reading to the boys.” Any chagrin that we might have felt at being stranded by our hostess was replaced by amazed admiration—and for me a determination to do the same for my own children, if I ever had them.

Well, I did, five of them, and since that first hysterical episode in Japan I’ve read aloud to all or some of them virtually every day. It has been one of the great joys of our family life. It is also increasingly a torment—a torment because as children get older the schedule gets busier; because it’s ever harder to get literary classics into children’s minds before they see the Hollywood variants; because childhood itself is fast disappearing into the bewitching embrace of technology.

“I do think that people, in the rush and clamor and get-things-done-ness of daily life, need to be reminded about what reading aloud can do,” says author Kate DiCamillo, a Newbery Medalist and evangelist on the subject.

To curl up with children and a good book has long been one of the great civilizing practices of domestic life, an almost magical means of cultivating warm fellow feeling, shared in-jokes and a common cultural understanding. Harvard professor Maria Tatar has written of its origins in medieval fireside storytelling, “before print and electronic media supplied nighttime entertainments.”

Certainly in the modern era there is something quaint about a grown-up and a child or two sitting in a silence broken only by the sound of a single human voice. Yet how cozy, how impossibly lovely it is! Unlike tech devices, which atomize the family by drawing each member into his own virtual reality, great stories pull people of different ages toward one another, emotionally and physically. When my children were small, I would often read with my eldest daughter tucked in by my side, the boy draped like a panther half across my shoulders and half across the back of the sofa, a tiny daughter on either knee, and the baby in my lap. If we happened to be on one of our cycles through “Treasure Island,” Robert Louis Stevenson’s swashbuckling classic, my husband would come to listen, too, and stretch out on the floor in his suit and tie and shush the children when they started to act out the exciting bits.

“We let down our guard when someone we love is reading us a story,” Ms. DiCamillo says. “We exist together in a little patch of warmth and light.”

She’s right, of course. When you read “Goodnight Moon” with a toddler who sits trustingly on your lap, gazing at the page with rapt absorption; when you ask her to “find the mouse” and she pokes out a finger and earnestly touches the page, you are in that patch of warmth, the both of you. When you read “The Story of Ping” to a slightly older child and notice him wince at the moment when Ping gets smacked on the bottom after spending all night out on the Yangtze River; or when you get to the scene in “The Wind in the Willows” when Mr. Toad sees his first automobile and the children laugh out loud at his rapturous cries (“O poop-poop! O my!”), you are in that patch of light.

The evident pleasure of hearing a story read aloud is not confined to the young. Even teenagers (and husbands) will listen if the writing is good. So it seems a shame that, in many households, parents read to children only until the children are old enough to read by themselves. In the golden, misty days of yore—a decade ago, say—that could safely establish a pattern for life. Reading aloud was a kind of grand gateway, beautiful in itself but also an entry point to the larger world of literature. It was understood that a child who learned to love stories by hearing them would be a child who would willingly graduate to more sophisticated literature for his own reading.

Alas, this assumption is no longer so easy to make. In an epoch in which screens of one sort or another have become ubiquitous, it is more vital than ever to read aloud often, and at length, for as long as children will stay to listen. Without sustained adult effort, many kids won’t bother going through the gateway at all. I know a voracious young reader who stopped consuming novels for pleasure for almost four years after she gained access to a laptop. In our family, the attempted usurpation by electronic entertainment has struck each child progressively at an earlier age—not because I’m a feckless mother, I hope, but because that is the way the culture is going. If the drift to YouTube and Instagram and Hulu has happened in our household, a book-obsessed place that is stuffed with gloriously varied volumes thanks to my day job as this paper’s children’s book critic, how must it be elsewhere?

Technology has “deformed the childhood of my sons,” a friend says bleakly. Like mine, her children span the time before and after the mass use of computerized devices, before and after the deluge of online-ism—a coinage dangerously close to onanism and perhaps not far off the mark—and she notes a distressing difference between even the media saturation of her 17-year-old and his 13-year-old brother. The younger boy had less time to grow up without pixels, and it shows.

For many kids, if the choice is between a book and the Internet, the Internet wins. Studies of media consumption bear this out. But if the choice is between scrolling around through prefabricated worlds online and receiving the attention of a devoted adult, surely human storytelling can prevail. Brittany Baldwin, a speechwriter in Washington, remembers long sessions of her father reading “The Yearling” and “The Hobbit” to her and her three siblings at their home in Houston. “There was something about listening that not only helped us be attentive but also let [our] minds be swept up in the story until it became a dream,” she says of those pre-Internet days. Hearing stories unfurl calmly, she adds, “gave me an outlook on things beyond what is seen.”

My shining role model Lisa, the vanishing hostess—and, as it happens, a film producer and thus no reflexive enemy of the screen—notes: “Creating that world in your head is a muscle that needs to be exercised. Kids now are being spoon-fed the visual storytelling, so there’s no reason for them to close their eyes and imagine a world, imagine what these people would look like, the clothes and smells and landscape.”

It was for that reason that I tried furiously, when my children were small, to stay ahead of Disney and other well-meaning cinematic manglers of classic children’s literature. Not that movie adaptations are necessarily bad, but they do tend to colonize the mind. I wanted my children to conjure sublimely odd, fabulously idiosyncratic stories such as “Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland,” “Peter Pan” and “Winnie-the-Pooh” in their own heads, for themselves, before they internalized the animated renditions.

It was hard, and it’s getting harder. A second-grader too young to tackle the Harry Potter books almost cannot help seeing them onscreen, or bits of them, and thus will envision Maggie Smith as Prof. McGonagall before he opens the first volume in the series. That Hollywood has been interpreting children’s literature since its earliest days—think of Shirley Temple in “The Little Princess” (1939)—is a reminder that the race against the machine predates the invention of the iPad.

Wait, I hear an irritated chorus say, what’s so bad about the iPad? What about all those zippy interactive storybooks that tiny kids can “read” to themselves? And what about audio books—are they bad, too? IPads and audio books have their virtues, but they don’t have warm arms, they can’t share a joke, and they haven’t any knowledge of, or interest in, a particular child. In the case of recorded stories, they can’t answer questions or observe a child’s puzzlement and know to pause and explain what, say, a “charabanc” is. They most certainly won’t re-read Mr. Toad’s brilliant insults for a listener who wants to memorize them. (One of my happiest moments as a mother was overhearing one daughter cheerily denounce another as a “common, low, fat barge-woman,” a triumphant vindication of reading Kenneth Grahame to them.)

Both grown-ups and children are missing something when there is no reading aloud. The children’s loss is hateful to contemplate: the fabulous illustrations they will not see, the esoteric vocabulary they may never hear, the thrilling epics they will never embark upon. But grown-ups lose too: They forgo a precious point of sustained connection and a lot of goofy fun (one friend’s father used to read “The Happy Lion” in a John Wayne drawl), as well as the opportunity to pass on literary favorites. Harvard professor Maria Tatar evokes William Wordsworth in the context of handing down cherished stories: “What we have loved / Others will love, and we will teach them how.”

What’s more, reading to children provides a return ticket back through the gateway—to stories that adults may otherwise seldom revisit: fairy tales and Norse mythology, the heroic sagas of Odysseus and Beowulf, even the unexpectedly disconcerting adventures of the children who found themselves with Mary Poppins as a nanny. (Walt Disney left a lot out of the movie.)

For 45 minutes or an hour adults can give children—and themselves—an irreplaceable gift, a cultural grounding, a zest for language, a stake in the rich history of storytelling. That’s not so long, surely? There will be plenty of time afterward for everyone to go back online.

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On the importance of reading aloud to kids (even after they’re reading independently)….

“We have an obligation to read aloud to our children. To read them things they enjoy. To read to them stories we are already tired of. To do the voices, to make it interesting, and not to stop reading to them just because they learn to read to themselves.” — Neil Gaiman on the Future of Reading and Libraries

Like most parents of pre-literate children, we read aloud daily to our 6 and 4 year old kids as a part of our evening routine. The benefits of reading aloud to this set are well known; access to the world of stories being the most obvious, parental connection and shared enjoyment of stories being others. Fun aside, reading aloud is widely recognized as the single most important activity for literacy acquisition (SO SERIOUS, but still, no surprise there!).

But what about older children who can read independently? They are often eager to read alone, and can be impatient with the slower pace of read-alouds, making them reluctant listeners. But it’s increasingly acknowledged that even fluent readers gain a tremendous amount from being read to. As Jim Trelease, the author of the Read Aloud Handbook points out, a child’s reading level doesn’t catch up to his or her comprehension level until around 8th grade. Reading aloud to this literate set can provide access to more sophisticated literature than they’re capable of comfortably tackling themselves, not to mention strengthen their listening skills and patience (which may have amazing real world benefits!).

As the passionate TEDx speaker below and the author of this piece on KQED’s MindShift describe, there are other reasons it’s a good idea to continue reading with children as long as they will let us. For one, the physical closeness that reading aloud usually brings creates an effortless intimacy (already something that I appreciate with our no-longer-snuggly six year old). We can ensure reading is a fun, shared experience that is joyful, rather than stressful (particularly important for beginning or struggling readers). It also offers parents an entry point to help children think through big issues — social, emotional, or geopolitical — which are challenging to address through direct discussion (or the snoring parental lecture!).

Choosing books for the family read-aloud also lets parents introduce books that kids wouldn’t pick themselves (while we get to sneakily broaden their horizons — I’m looking at you, Thomas the Tank Engine and Star Wars!). At our house, we usually let each child choose one picture book (or section of a long chapter book) and choose one ourselves (it takes anywhere from 15–30 minutes total for all three choices). For us, reading aloud is also an easy way to introduce French and Indian stories, places and culture to our children. Just 15 minutes a day can make a difference!

An area where reading aloud to older children can be more directly helpful is when reading the likes of Dickens and Shakespeare. As Jessica Lahey, educator and author notes in the Atlantic, she often reads aloud in her 7th and 8th grade classrooms, because “it’s the best way to ease students into challenging language and rhetoric.” Listening is also no doubt the best way to encounter poetry and verse, and language such as Shakespeare’s, meant for performance.

We’re all on board with why reading aloud to our kids is important; here are five best practice reminders for how, from The Read Aloud Handbook:

  1. Begin reading aloud to children at birth (American Association of Pediatrics recommends that pediatricians promote reading to children from infancy).
  2. Before beginning, always say the name of the book, the author and illustrator. (I only started this recently, but it’s amazing how excited the kids get when they recognize a familiar author.)
  3. The first time you read a book, ask “What do you think this is going to be about?” (I rarely do this, or really discuss the stories much, but will try and remind myself to do this and also take a moment for discussion at the end).
  4. The most common mistake in reading aloud is reading too fast. (Guilty as charged!). Slow down enough so children have enough time to look at pictures (if there are any) and more importantly, to build mental pictures of what they’ve heard.
  5. It’s ok if very young children (or older ones!) can’t focus for too long. Sometimes, letting them doodle or build with Lego while listening can help.

And most important….Focus on the fun!

As Lucy Calkins notes in her inspiring book “Raising Lifelong Learners”, “We must stop pointing at and calling attention to every word as we read it, stop nudging our kids to read part of the book themselves, stop instructing them on vocabulary words, stop checking that the story means the same to them as it does to us. In short, we must stop grilling them with little questions…when I read aloud, my goal is to snuggle around the warm glow of a story.

Personally, I just can’t resist the warm glow of a story myself. The opportunity to read all the children’s classics I never had access to and experience them for the first time along with my kids is too good to pass up! Happy Reading everyone (and thanks for reading this)!

Nitasha

What are some favorite read-alouds at your house? Do you think reading to independent readers is important? or a recipe for disaster? Was reading aloud a part of your own childhood?

Love to hear your thoughts, as always!

Great reads about story-telling and the importance of reading aloud:

https://www.theguardian.com/books/booksblog/2009/jun/04/fiction

Storytelling for adults makes a comeback: https://www.theguardian.com/books/2013/jan/06/storytelling-back-in-fashion

More on the benefits of reading aloud to older kids here

Some great read-aloud book lists:

https://www.theguardian.com/childrens-books-site/2013/dec/09/book-doctor-reading-aloud

https://www.theguardian.com/childrens-books-site/2014/may/27/top-10-books-to-read-aloud-to-children-william-sutcliffe

Suggestions for exciting read-alouds without character voices here

Two great listens:

How to Get Teens to Read: August 24, 2016 On Point episode with Tom Ashbrook and guest David Denby, New Yorker writer and author of Lit Up: One Reporter. Three Schools. Twenty-four Books That Can Change Lives. Great reminder of how the focus on pleasure is the key to raising a reader!

The Father-Daughter Reading Streak that lasted nearly 9 years — NPR’s story on Alice Ozma and The Reading Promise: My Father and the Books We Shared.

Coloring books: mindful or mindless?

The adult coloring book craze has been in full swing for several years now. The beautifully detailed books by Scottish illustrator Johanna Basford launched the trend in 2013, and, for a period last year, her “Secret Garden” and a follow-up, “Enchanted Forest” were Amazon’s top two best-selling books among all categories. The New Yorker places this renewed interest in a favorite childhood activity within the larger context of adults craving simpler childhood experiences; this so-called ‘Peter Pan market’ includes young adult books and summer camp experiences for adults (!).

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From: Secret Garden: An Inky Treasure Hunt and Coloring Book, via Glamour

Much has also been made of the stress-reducing and digital-detoxifying powers of coloring and, indeed, the publishing industry boom apparently began in France in 2012 when publishers began marketing coloring books as ‘Art-therapie’, ‘Coloriages Anti-Stress’, and the like. Going further back, Carl Jung prescribed mandala coloring to his patients to relax and get in touch with their inner selves. This ‘meditative’ aspect of coloring fits in well with the current interest in mindfulness and slow living.

So……chilling and relaxing is all well and good, and we could all use more of it, but as far as children’s creativity goes, the question arises…is coloring too limited an activity for young children? It’s hard not to consider it inferior to drawing if one views creative expression in a simple, hierarchical way. There are certainly those who believe it is harmful for creativity and that ready-made images set too perfect an example of what drawing should look like. This Artful Parent blog post sums the concerns up quite well and indeed, follows in the footsteps of Susan Striker, an art teacher who published a series of Anti-coloring Books in the late 1970s and 1980s to push back against the ‘mindless’ coloring trend of those decades.

While the view of coloring books as ‘damaging to a child’s imagination and creativity’ is a tad extreme in my view, it is worth considering this issue. For most kids, drawing and coloring are usually part of a healthy mix of activities and a love for coloring books is only concerning if it pushes drawing aside completely.

For me, the new popularity of adult coloring books brought my own childhood love (obsession!) with coloring books to the forefront. Like many children, I decided at some point that I wasn’t good at drawing and rarely did it. Educators have long noted that around age 9 or 10, many children lose confidence in their ability to draw because their ability to draw realistically falls short of their expectations. For many children, this happens even earlier and it’s worth being vigilant as a parent to try and delay it as long as possible!

While it’s true that children express their creativity in hundreds of ways (a child who prefers coloring to drawing can still be highly creative in imaginary play, story-telling and other forms of expression), drawing does hold a particularly important place in early childhood development. As Sandra Crosser, a professor of early childhood education, writes in Early Childhood News:

The simple act of drawing does indeed play an important role in a child’s physical, emotional, and cognitive development. Like no other activity, drawing allows young children to express emotions, experience autonomy, and build confidence. Unfortunately, as they grow older, children lose their confidence in and enthusiasm for the one activity that can give so much pleasure.

For this reason, it’s worth being aware of some common pitfalls in speaking about art, particularly for parents of young children. This list of suggestions from the same source is a good reminder for us all:

  1. Provide children with nontoxic drawing materials and loads of paper starting during the second year.
  1. Model drawing. Show children that you like to draw and make designs but do not model WHAT children should draw.
  1. Encourage drawing efforts by talking about the beautiful colors, pointy lines, and thin shapes the child has made.
  1. Rather than asking the child “What is it?,” invite the child to tell you about the drawing. Asking “What is it?” suggests that the child has failed to depict what he or she intended.
  1. Forego the temptation to provide coloring book type outlines for children to fill in. Instead provide a variety of shapes, colors, textures of papers, and a variety of drawing tools for the child to create his or her own drawing.
  1. Talk about concepts like thick, thin, wide, narrow, dark, light, edge, shape, contour, illustrations, artist, illustrator, straight, crooked, open curve, and closed curve.
  1. Display high-quality drawings at the child’s eye level. Include them in the dramatic play, book, and block areas as well as in the art center.
  1. Play beautiful music to accompany drawing. Talk about how the tempo of music changes the drawings.
  1. Give children the freedom to choose the subjects and colors of their drawings. We should not dictate how to draw or how to color the child’s project. If we do that, it becomes the adult’s project which the child is forced to emulate.
  1. Rather than drawing for the child, ask helpful questions and make suggestions. Encourage children’s efforts and voice confidence in their ability to solve their drawing problems.

Here is a schematic showing stages of drawing development (in which the text might be more useful than the image) and another useful reminder of How to Talk to Kids about their Art.

drawing stages 2

Meanwhile, back to the adult coloring craze — I recently tried it again and can’t deny its calming effect. It does feel a bit mindless, but that’s sort of the point, at least for me. A bit like “meditation-lite”, but that’s still a win, given how hard it is for me to meditate. I don’t get around to it very often, but Lila, our 5 year old, and I love the Secret Garden series and these colored pencils for its detailed drawings (artist fave Prismacolors and ergosoft Staedtlers, both upgrades from the set of 50 Camel oil pastels I used to request every August for my Rakhi gift as a coloring fanatic in India).

In the end, comparing coloring to drawing is probably a bit unfair; while drawing is more creative and serves an important expressive role, relaxing with a bit of ‘easy’ coloring has its place, too. So thanks Johanna Basford, and thanks to you for reading!

Nitasha

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yale Child Study Center’s Erika Christakis on why most Preschool ‘Crafts’ are counterfeit and serve dull and simplistic goals

Like many parents, I’ve felt a vague sense of panic about the cookie-cutter arts and crafts projects that most young children are introduced to in preschool. The act of gluing together pre-cut shapes and googly eyes to create the same final product as all your classmates seems to provide little more than an opportunity to practice motor skills and the ability to follow instructions (oh and to sit in a chair long enough to complete the task!). These ‘make and takes’ (as an arts educator once described them to me) were one reason we chose a Reggio Emilia -inspired preschool for our kids.

Through the preschool and the wonderful Artful Parent book and blog, I began to value the process, not simply the product of our preschoolers’ creative output. BUT I struggled with this shift in focus from product to process nearly as much. A simplistic “process not product” approach leaves parents and teachers paralyzed by an “anything goes” and “it’s all art” mentality, making it difficult to formulate meaningful feedback, or to help children develop specific skills or learn how to use art tools for genuine self-expression.

So I was relieved that Erika Christakis, of the Yale Child Study Center and an experienced preschool educator (and parent), addressed this issue in a chapter titled “Natural Born Artists” in her new book The Importance of Being Little (February 2016).

She writes,

“The problem with our catchy [‘process, not product’] phrase is that [it] doesn’t go nearly far enough. It’s encouraging that we no longer force every child to produce in lockstep the exact same construction-paper Thanksgiving turkey. Even the dreariest early childhood programs have generally moved beyond pure mimicry as a pedagogic strategy, and one of the basic evaluation criteria for preschool pedagogy is the absence of a model of what each art product is supposed to look like.”

And thankfully, she provides some thoughts on how to emphasize process without abandoning constructive guidance and leadership:

“The irony never ceases to amaze me: educators are willing to provide direct instruction in almost every imaginable arena except teaching children how to use art tools, the one set of tools that all preliterate children should know how to use but might actually have trouble figuring out on their own. We hide our lack of leadership behind the guise of fostering self-expression when, in reality, we haven’t given preschoolers the tools and space to express themselves!”

“But imagine what happens,” she adds, “when a teacher treats a substance like real clay deliberately, showing the children how to attach two pieces of clay together by making a wet substance called “slip”. She could show them how to hold the cutting and shaping tools and how to put the clay away and keep it covered so it won’t dry out, inviting the children to understand its properties and how they change under different conditions, experimenting with more or less water, more or less pressure – all before even thinking about making something out of it. This process takes time and requires confidence in the teacher and the child.”

“The purpose of this exercise is not to teach children how to make clay alligators and coffee mugs. The purpose is to teach children a predictable cognitive sequence they can apply when they encounter anything new: Observe, question, explore, reflect. Repeat.”

It’s critical to pay attention to this with preschool-age children, because as children get older, the majority get more goal-oriented and creatively inhibited. I’ve heard many arts educators bemoan the fact that by the time children reach middle school their creative confidence is often very low. At home, I’ve seen our 5 year old already focus her art making on the product and on adult expectations (because of her more traditional preschool start? her intrinsic goal-oriented nature?), compared to our 4 year old, who is still happy to make meaning from his elaborate color creations that have no identifiable shape.

Studies using measures of creativity have shown that creativity drops most significantly between kindergarten and third grade. Older children often provide expected responses and stop before original ideas emerge due to peer or adult acceptance pressures. And even if a child is lucky enough to be in a program that supports creative learning, it’s worth keeping Erika Christakis’ reminder in mind, that:

“…there are no limits to how [you] interact with [your] children away from preschool. Studies show that even the best teachers have a relatively small impact on children’s outcomes compared to genetic, familial and environmental influences.”

There’s so much more to discuss about this topic (and Erika Christakis’ book), but for now, I’m working on the first step: encouraging more authentic art making processes for my kids and letting them explore a variety of high quality materials to make something that has meaning for them.

Thanks for reading!

For a nice, direct summary of Christakis’ chapter on Natural Born Artists, see “Why Preschool Crafts are a Total Waste of Time” by Melissa Dahl in NYmag.com’s Science of Us.